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Effective sleeper

When the sleeper and fastenings combine to effectively support the rails vertically and provides lateral restraint. Restraint shall allow no lateral movement of the fastenings relative to the timber. The sleeper shall provide gauge restraint and shall be one piece that will not separate along its length or transversely.Sleepers should not be excessively backcanted more than 1 in 30.
Timber sleepers with rot, or holes through which ballast can be seen are not satisfactory. At least 300mm is required between rail foot and sleeper ends for effective tamping.